There are numerous types of surgery for oropharyngeal cancer. The type of surgery depends on the location and size of your cancer.

Oral cancer surgical cost in india is relatively less, so there is high demand for all types of surgery. The main types of surgery for oral cancer are:

Surgery to Remove Cancer

In this case, the surgeon will remove the cancerous tissue and a margin of normal tissue around the cancer. This is to ensure that the cancer has been removed completely. This operation is referred to as Primary Tumor Resection.

The surgeon will send this tissue to be examined by pathologists. They call the tissue a ‘clear margin’ when they detect no cancer cells at the edge of the tissue.

You can undergo different kinds of tumor resection. It mainly depends on the location of the cancer. In case the cancer is small and easily reachable, surgery can be done via the mouth. But in other cases, cuts in the jawbone (mandible) or neck may be required to access the tumor.

Surgery to Mandible or Jaw Bone

Mouth cancer, in some cases, spreads to your jaw bone. For this, surgery may be required to remove some or all of the bone or tissue in your jaw. Another name is mandibular resection.

There are two types of resections:

  • Partial thickness
  • Full thickness

Partial thickness:  A thin layer of bone is removed.  This layer of bone houses the teeth. This is done when doctor suspects cancer even if X-rays do not reveal it.

Full thickness:  All the bone in your jaw is removed. This may be done if X-ray reveals that cancer has spread to the jawbone.

Maxillectomy

This is surgery to the bones in the roof of your mouth. This is needed when cancer is impacting the hard palate (bones in roof of mouth). All the bones may be removed (full maxillectomy) or part of the bones (partial maxillectomy).

Both types leave hole in the roof of your mouth into the nasal cavity. The surgeon may be able to rebuild this area (reconstruction) or replace with prosthesis.

Surgery to Lips

If cancer occurs in the lip, micrographic surgery is advised. Cancer is removed slice by slice. The slices are checked one by one by the surgeon so as to remove minimal tissue.

Surgery to Tongue

Called as glossectomy, this surgery is performed very rarely. There are two types:

  • Partial
  • Total

Partial- less than half the tongue is removed.

Total- more than half your tongue is removed. Surgeon will reconstruct the tongue.  But after surgery, swallowing and speech will be affected.

Surgery to Larynx (Voice Box)

Surgeon may remove part or all of your voice box besides the cancer in your mouth. Larynx is the connection between lungs and mouth which helps you breathe. So for breathing after your surgery, a small hole is made in your neck called as stoma (tracheostomy).

Surgery to Lymph nodes

 In some cases, cancer spreads from mouth to lymph nodes in the neck. In this case, surgeon removes part or all of the lymph nodes. This is referred to as a neck dissection.

There are plenty of hospitals in the country performing surgeries for oral cancer. So one need not be deterred by oral cancer treatment cost in india which is not exorbitant.