Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia which is caused due to the destruction of red blood cells in human body. This can be caused by various conditions internally as well as externally. However, the classification of hemolytic anemia is divided into inherited or acquired. Inherited anemia
Etiology or inherited anemia is related to the red blood cells which become dysfunctional. This could be due to a number of conditions which include thalassemia where in there is a defect in the production of hemoglobin, hereditary spherocytosis wherein there is a defect in the membranes of the red blood cells and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency wherein there is a defect in the metabolism of the red blood cells. These physically affect the red blood cells and cause them to damage. The causes behind the same include increased hypertension, lead poisoning, abnormalities of proteins in the blood, damage to red blood cells caused by physical trauma and immune mediated responses. In all the cases, there is a destruction of red blood cells which have a strong impact on the human body.
The procedure of testing patients is similar to that of anemia. Learn about Hemolytic anemia and its symptoms here. The symptoms will include skin and mucus membrane paleness, weakness, fatigue and dizziness. In severe cases, the patients could suffer shortness of breath, loss of consciousness and heart palpitations. Additionally, patients could suffer from jaundice and complications may include heart failure, decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood and gallstones.
The disease will be suspected on the medical history provided by the patients and the results of the medical tests. The cause will be determined through investigations and blood tests. This includes a complete blood count and peripheral smear in order to determine the amount of red blood cells and the examination of the bone marrow to determine the cause of the problem. It will be confirmed with a direct Coombs test that seeks out antibodies which are bound to the red cells.
In severe cases, blood transfusion is performed. However, there is an exception in autoimmune haemolytic anemia that is managed by reducing the immune reaction which is associated with the condition with a steroid therapy. In rare cases wherein steroids are not effective, patients will have administered medications like rituximab. There can also be severe cases when the life of a patient is in danger, in such cases, intravenous steroids are infused. Lastly, in those cases when treatment options do not work, the organ is surgically removed.
After the diagnosis of the medical condition, the treatment for the same is determined. It is important to ensure that the patient is tested on time, in case of any additional requirement of clinical tests; the patient should go through the same at the earliest. It is impossible for human body to function without adequate amount of blood and this condition causes a complete disruption of the balance of red blood cells inside human body.